Titanium dioxide

In nature, Titanium dioxide occurs in three different crystal modifications: anatase, brookite and rutile. For the manufacturing of pigments, however, only the rutile and anatase modifications are of importance. Although they belong to the same crystal system, there are characteristic differences in the lattice structure. The lattice cells are closer packed in rutile than in anatase. For this reason, rutile has a higher thermal stability than anatase. While the cells of anatase are linked at four edges, rutile is just linked at two edges. The main differences of the two pigment types concerning the physical properties and characteristics as a pigment are based on this fact.

Raw materials: Ilmenite or titanium slag, among others, are used as raw materials for the manufacturing of titanium dioxide using the sulphate process. For the production using the chloride process, however, natural or synthetic rutiles are used.


Manufacturing process: Nowadays, titanium dioxide is worldwide manufactured according to two methods. On the one hand, the sulphate process is used, enabling the production of anatase or rutile, or the chloride process which is only possible for manufacturing rutile.

Titanium dioxide production using the sulphate process

In the sulphate process so-called sulphate pigments (anatase or rutile) are manufactured from ilmenite ore (FeTiO3) and concentrated sulphuric acid. Most manufactures meanwhile make complete use of the by-products (diluted hydrochloric acid, green vitriol) resulting from the process.

Das Laux-Verfahren

Titanium dioxide production using the chloride process

The chloride process, that was developed later, uses an environmentally-friendly technology with a reaction of a titanium enriched raw material caused by chlorine gas and petrol coke. At temperatures of around 1000°C titanium tetrachloride (TiCI4) is produced which is purified by distilling and re-oxidized to titanium dioxide in a pure oxygen flame. The occurring chlorine is returned to the process. In this process the chloride pigments are produced (however only rutile pigments).

Das Laux-Verfahren

The properties of the product are optimized by organic and inorganic treatments.

Scholz, as an authorised distributor of PRECHEZA and Kronos, is responsible for Germany and offers the complete portfolio of Titanium dioxide pigments.

  Manufacturing process
Anatase pigmentsSulphate process Chloride process
KRONOS® 1002Yes 
KRONOS® 1071Yes 
Anatase pigments used for Food/ Cosmetics  
KRONOS® 1171Yes 
Anatase pigments for Pharma  
KRONOS® 1171Yes 
Rutile pigments primarily used for coatings  
KRONOS® 2043Yes 
KRONOS® 2044Yes 
KRONOS® 2047Yes 
KRONOS® 2056Yes 
KRONOS® 2064Yes 
KRONOS® 2066Yes 
KRONOS® 2160 Yes
KRONOS® 2190Yes 
KRONOS® 2300 Yes
KRONOS® 2310 Yes
KRONOS® 2315 Yes
KRONOS® 2360 Yes
Rutile pigments primarily used for plastics  
KRONOS® 2211 Yes
KRONOS® 2220 Yes
KRONOS® 2222 Yes
KRONOS® 2225 Yes
KRONOS® 2230 Yes
KRONOS® 2233 Yes
KRONOS® 2450 Yes
KRONOS® 2500 Yes
Rutile pigments primarily used for glass, enamel and ceramic products  
KRONOS® 2800 Yes
Titanium dioxide without pigment properties  
KRONOS® 3025Yes 
Titanium dioxide photocatalysts  

TFor types not included in this list please feel free to contact our sales department. By e-mail to carsten.plenker@harold-scholz.de.

For further technical information as well as data sheets please contact our product safety department produktsicherheit@harold-scholz.de or visit the website of Kronos http://www.kronostio2.com/en/technical-services.

Apart from the trading products of Kronos, Scholz also offers liquid preparations on the basis of titanium dioxide.